This review provides a snapshot of the current state-of-the-art of drying cells and spermatozoa. The major successes and pitfalls of the most relevant literature are described separately for spermatozoa and cells. Overall, the data published so far indicate that we are closer to success in spermatozoa, whereas the situation is far more complex with cells. Critical for success is the presence of xeroprotectants inside the spermatozoa and, even more so, inside cells to protect subcellular compartments, primarily DNA. We highlight workable strategies to endow gametes and cells with the right combination of xeroprotectants, mostly sugars, and late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) or similar ‘intrinsically disordered’ proteins to help them withstand reversible desiccation. We focus on the biological aspects of water stress, and in particular cellular and DNA damage, but also touch on other still unexplored issues, such as the choice of both dehydration and rehydration methods or approaches, because, in our view, they play a primary role in reducing desiccation damage. We conclude by highlighting the need to exhaustively explore desiccation strategies other than lyophilisation, such as air drying, spin drying or spray drying, ideally with new prototypes, other than the food and pharmaceutical drying strategies currently used, tailored for the unique needs of cells and spermatozoa.

Dry storage of mammalian spermatozoa and cells: state-of-the-art and possible future directions

Pasqualino Loi;Anzalone Debora Agata;Palazzese Luca;Joseph Saragusty;Czernik Marta
2021

Abstract

This review provides a snapshot of the current state-of-the-art of drying cells and spermatozoa. The major successes and pitfalls of the most relevant literature are described separately for spermatozoa and cells. Overall, the data published so far indicate that we are closer to success in spermatozoa, whereas the situation is far more complex with cells. Critical for success is the presence of xeroprotectants inside the spermatozoa and, even more so, inside cells to protect subcellular compartments, primarily DNA. We highlight workable strategies to endow gametes and cells with the right combination of xeroprotectants, mostly sugars, and late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) or similar ‘intrinsically disordered’ proteins to help them withstand reversible desiccation. We focus on the biological aspects of water stress, and in particular cellular and DNA damage, but also touch on other still unexplored issues, such as the choice of both dehydration and rehydration methods or approaches, because, in our view, they play a primary role in reducing desiccation damage. We conclude by highlighting the need to exhaustively explore desiccation strategies other than lyophilisation, such as air drying, spin drying or spray drying, ideally with new prototypes, other than the food and pharmaceutical drying strategies currently used, tailored for the unique needs of cells and spermatozoa.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11575/111751
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 1
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 1
social impact